V.P.D stands for Visual Processing Disorder and it is more common than we realize.
What are visual processing issues?
When people think of eyesight, they usually think about acuity, as in 20/20 vision. But vision is much more than that. The brain, not the eyes, processes the visual world, including things like symbols, pictures and distances. Weaknesses in these brain functions are called visual processing disorder or visual processing issues.
Visual processing issues don’t just affect how a child learns. They also impact his ability to do ordinary things like sorting socks or playing a simple game of kickball. Visual processing issues can cause problems with socializing and self-esteem, too. Some kids may become frustrated and withdrawn.
Eight Types of Visual Processing Issues
Visual processing issues are complex. That’s because there are eight different types, and people can have more than one. These issues often go undetected because they don’t show up on vision tests. Here are the different types of visual processing issues scientists have identified:
- Visual discrimination issues: Kids with this type have difficulty seeing the difference between two similar letters, shapes or objects. So they may mix up letters, confusing d and b, or p and q.
- Visual figure-ground discrimination issues: Kids with this type may not be able to pull out a shape or character from its background. They may have trouble finding a specific piece of information on a page.
- Visual sequencing issues: Kids with these issues have difficulty telling the order of symbols, words or images. They may struggle to write answers on a separate sheet or skip lines when reading. They also may reverse or misread letters, numbers and words.
- Visual-motor processing issues: Kids with these issues have difficulty using feedback from the eyes to coordinate the movement of other parts of the body. Writing within the lines or margins can be tough. Kids also may bump into things and have trouble copying from a book.
- Long- or short-term visual memory issues: Kids with either type have difficulty recalling what they’ve seen. Because of that they may struggle with reading and spelling. They may also have trouble remembering what they’ve read and using a calculator or keyboard.
- Visual-spatial issues: Kids with these issues have difficulty telling where objects are in space. That includes how far things are from them and from each other. It also includes objects and characters described on paper or in a spoken narrative. Kids may also have a tough time reading maps and judging time.
- Visual closure issues: Kids with these issues have difficulty identifying an object when only parts are visible. They may not recognize a truck if it’s missing wheels. Or a person in a drawing that is missing a facial feature. Kids may also have great difficulty with spelling because they can’t recognize a word if a letter is missing.
- Letter and symbol reversal issues: Kids with these issues switch letters or numbers when writing or make letter substitutions when reading after age 8. They also have trouble with letter formation that affects reading, writing and math skills.
This information was pulled from Understood.org
For more information go to the following links:
It doesn’t matter if you are a teacher or a parent, targeted instruction begins with proper assessments that tell you where the break-down is happening. So, if you are a teacher start here and if you are a parent ASK for these assessments or ones like them. Without a starting point intervention will not be successful.
The below assessment is called the PAST. The PAST is given to target where the break-down is. You can learn more about it here:
Another test that will help determine where to start is the D.S.A
More information here:
The more information the better! If a student is not progressing in the classroom they should be given at the very least these two assessments, or something like them to target instruction.
Here is the way we progress though these skills:
If you are missing something, you will not move forward. If there are gaps, they must be filled BEFORE instruction on-level can occur.
If dyslexia is suspected then there are two other assessments that can be given by the classroom teacher:
Quick Alphabetic recall:
Have the student write their alphabet quickly while saying each letter as they write it down in order neatly. Students should be able to do this in 30 seconds or less without looping back. They have 2 minutes to complete the task. If the student keeps looping back, incorrectly writing the letters out of order or cannot get through the task in 2 minutes it is a big red flag.
ALL of this can be done by the general education teacher!
I have learned so much about dyslexia in the last few months it is amazing! Here are a few things I learned that most people do not know and should:
- Reading is NOT innate.
- Our brains recycled areas to read with, but some people (15-20%) do NOT have the same neurological connections for reading as others.
- Reading for dyslexics is completely different… they cannot simply try harder and succeed.
- You can re-wired your brain! Your brain is amazingly placid.
- Dyslexics CAN receive effective and targeted instruction in the general education classroom.
- There are ways to intervene sooner and lessen the likelihood that a student slips further behind.
- Programs that target dyslexic students should be readily available and common knowledge in the education field.
- If you are only able to reach 80% of your students… you are failing 20% of your students. That is NOT good. Ever!
- You want to strengthen not circumnavigate a dyslexics reading brain.
- If you teach a dyslexic child with generalized education they WILL ALWAYS struggle and move further and further behind.
- You CAN close the gap!
I will try to show you how I am doing it and give you resources to do it too!
Today I had the amazing honor to join other educators in their journeys to be “smarter” at teaching. I decided I would just sit and keep my mouth shut *I don’t do this very well*. I went into the word study group, and was provoked *cough cough* into speaking. I was shocked at how many educators were not aware of the changes they could make in the classroom for their students who were not moving. General education is just that, GENERAL. GENERAL education only reaches about half of your students that you are teaching… what about the rest? Most teachers are aware that something more needs to be done, but lack the resources or training to move forward. The question remained, “What can we do for our students not moving forward?” So, I got on my soap box and ran some special un-named teachers out of the room. I began by stating that you must start from the beginning. The beginning meaning a phonemic awareness assessment. So, I get several looks from 5th grade teachers who have been told to NOT give them this, because they already know it. They can read, so they MUST know it. NO NO! Kids who struggle are soooo good at faking it! You have to assess them from the bottom up. There is a reason they are not moving. Okay, so now that I established that (most people remained for that) I began to unleash the beast. My beast that says “No student should fail in the general education classroom to receive resources.” You mean they need an I.E.P? What do you mean by take kids OFF of I.E.P’s?! Well, teacher friends, I mean just that. Getting kids off of I.E.P’s and responding to interventions in the GENERAL EDUCATION classroom (not in intervention) should be your indicator of what is going on NOT failure. Oh my goodness! You mean I don’t need to be an interventionist to provide intervention?! NO! Here lies the issue… a lot of educators feel like their job is to be general, and if that doesn’t work, it is their job to document the student failing so they can get them intervention. I am very very against this. This is where I lost people and had others move closer. It is not the failure that determines the deficit, it is the response to appropriate intervention and instructional practices inside the general education classroom! Whew!
So, how can you help these students?
- Assess them properly! A DSA starting with Letter Name, A Phonological awareness assessment, a RAN test and an alphabetic test to name a few.
- Start at the FIRST gap! Do not skip areas of weakness to progress them… it won’t work! You have to fill the gaps and move up from there. If that means starting a 5th grader on phonemes then so be it.
- Use appropriate instruction CONSISTENTLY. Most people get it wrong here. You have the testing, the resources and the class. Now what? You do word study on Monday and then move on to reading groups. Kids who are not transitional readers should not dwell on comprehension! They should receive word study every.single.day. FIND THE TIME
- Here is where it gets tricky. If a student is making slower progress then what you would expect… try something else. I use three different reading programs in my classroom and my students are all finally moving excepts one.
- Know when a student needs additional resources because they truly NEED it and are not going to respond to what you have to offer. I do not take this very lightly! If you have tried basic word study (word journeys and words their way) followed by Phoneme push-its, chunk-chunk-blend cards and sorts and finally, a Wilson or Orton Gillingham approach and these are not working…… time for intervention.
- Know that I am not okay with any student failing in my classroom… zero. zilch.